Historical Scholars link Galle to the Old Testament city of Tarshish to which King Solomon sent his merchant ships to "procure gold, silver,ivory, apes and peacocks" and to where Jonah fled from the Lord.
However Galle as it is seen today is inextricably linked to the great maritime powers of the 16 th and 17 th Centuries ; Portugal , Holland and England
Local folklore attributes the name of Galle to the portuguese word "galo" or cock, in 1505 on their first landing in Galle , a cock was heard crowing. It is however more likely that the city received its name from the sinhalese word "gal" meaning rock of which there are many in the harbour and upon which many a ship has floundered
(see http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/avondster/story.html ) whatever the case the city coat of arms carries both the cock and a rock as its emblem
It was not until 1589 that the portuguese built a permanent settlement which was called Santa Cruz ( identified today as the site of the Zwart or black bastion). In 1640 after a very bloody 4 day battle that the Dutch took control of Galle and in 1663 started building the 90 acre ( 36 hectare) site with the help of negro slaves and the granite ballast from it merchant ships arriving from europe. It is this fort that is largely intact today and which is one of the best preserved dutch forts in Asia and is the reason why it was declared a UN world heritage site in 1988.
In 1796 Galle was ceded to the British under whom it rapidly became the gateway to the orient owing to its central position in what was then and still is the world's busiest shipping route. Sadly for galle though its importance went into decline with the building of the breakwater in Colombo in 1875. However its building lie in memory to this bygone era and "using a little imagination, this testament in stone can yield up a corridor into the past, a journey down which evokes images of ancient times , and which reveals the full glory of Galle"
The history of colonial galle is well documented in guide books however perhaps the most informative and interesting account is by Norah Roberts ( see http://cricketclub.org/sri_lanka_history.html )
A walk around the ramparts of galle at dawn or at sunset is a must. The massive ramparts built primarily by negro slaves using the ballast from dutch ships arriving from europe comprise 11 bastions. The area between the present army garrison and Neptune bastion now serving as a multiple and impromptu cricket ground. The ramparts between Neptune and Point Eutrecht serving as a promenade for the community
A walk around the inside streets of the fort reveal a myriad of old streets and houses, many with their original names and facades.a true time warp to the past.